Article 6 has been described as relating to some of the main provisions of the Paris Agreement.  Overall, it describes the cooperative approaches that the parties can take to achieve their national reductions in CO2 emissions. It thus contributes to making the Paris Agreement the framework for a global carbon market.  In order to “significantly reduce the risks and effects of climate change,” the agreement calls for the average increase in global temperature over this century to be well below 2 degrees Celsius, while continuing efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also calls on countries to commit as quickly as possible to comparing global greenhouse gas emissions and to become carbon neutral by the second half of this century. To achieve these goals, 186 countries – responsible for more than 90% of global emissions – presented CO2 reduction targets prior to the Paris conference, known as “determined national contributions” (INDC). These targets set out the commitments made by each country to reduce emissions until 2025 or 2030, including macroeconomic targets for co2 reduction and individual commitments of some 2,250 cities and 2,025 companies. Appendix I Contracting parties can use a number of sophisticated “flexibility mechanisms” (see below) to achieve their objectives. Appendix I Contracting parties can achieve their objectives by allocating reduced annual quotas within their limits to the main operators or by allowing these operators to exceed their endowments by compensating for potential overruns through a mechanism agreed by all parties to the UNFCCC, for example.
B by purchasing emission allowances from other operators with excess emission credits. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) has made a number of projections on what could be the future increase in global average temperature.  IPCC projections are “basic projections,” which means that they assume that no future efforts will be made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC forecasts cover the period from the beginning of the 21st century to the end of the 21st century.   The “probable” field (which, on the basis of the opinion of IPCC experts, has a probability of more than 66%), is an expected increase in global average temperature in the 21st century between 1.1 and 6.4 degrees Celsius. The UN report warns of the adverse effects of climate change earlier than expected. This is why we need to follow the report`s advice and why every tonne of emissions reduction can make a difference. The Paris Agreement contains a series of binding measures to monitor, verify and publicly report progress towards a country`s emissions reduction targets. Improving transparency rules applies a common framework to all countries, providing housing and support to nations that are not currently able to strengthen their systems over time. The range of temperature projections partly reflects different projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. 22-24 Divergent projections contain different assumptions for future social and economic development (economic growth, population level, energy policy), which affects projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. 22-24 The sector also reflects uncertainty in the climate system`s response to past and future ThG emissions (measured in terms of climate sensitivity). : 22-24 By analysis by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a carbon “budget” based on total emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (relative to the annual emission rate) to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius has been estimated at 2.25 trillion tonnes since 1870.